Reader is a program for showing ancient classic texts,
presenting the originals alongside with their translations in various
languages. (See image on the right.)
You can use this page to download the program, as well as
find information about its features.
After you install the program on your computer,
you may run
it once to examine its features. Upon running it for a second
time the program will ask you to register it, which is done by sending
us your “installation id” (a program-generated number). Then we’ll
send you your “activation key”, which unlocks Classics Reader for
use solely in your computer.
Classics Reader is free.
It is supported by your voluntary contribution, whatever that may be:
$15 — or any amount that you deem
the program is worthy of. Try it first!
Note: If you have already downloaded and installed Classics Reader, and you want to make a
to everything that is new, then
visit this page, which will guide you and help you figure out which
you already have, and what exactly you need to download for your
Otherwise, if you are a first-time visitor and want the full package
with the latest version, download it from the button below.
Runs in any version of Windows:
Save the downloaded file anywhere
in your disk, then run it.
Disclaimer: We guarantee our software is virus-free if downloaded from
this page. We claim no responsibility for unauthorized copies.
|Warning: after you
install it, Classics Reader will run as unregistered only once, to let you examine it.
The program will let you inspect it for as long as
you want. However, once you exit it and try to run it again, Classics
Reader will ask you to register it, guiding you on how to do it. The policy of “one
unregistered run only” is necessary to avoid the
unlimited running of the unregistered version, hence to discourage software piracy. We apologize for any inconvenience.
Texts that you can find in Classics Reader up to the current version (3.2)
The following classic texts have been made available
so far (v. 3.2), together with their listed translations:
|Homer: The Iliad
Samuel Butler (in prose)
|Homer: The Odyssey
||English: Samuel Butler (in
Modern Greek: Argyris Eftaliotis, in verse, Books 1-21 (completion:
Harry Foundalis, in verse, Book 22)
Spanish: Luis Segala y Estalella (in
||English: Harry Foundalis, Book Ι, §1–177
Modern Greek: Harry Foundalis, Book Ι, §1–177
English: George Rawlinson (the entire work)
||English: Harry Foundalis, §172a–185e
Modern Greek: Ioannis Sykoutris (converted to
contemporary Greek by: Harry Foundalis), §172a–185e
(Only the definitions,
postulates, and axioms)
|English: Harry Foundalis (definitions,
postulates, common notions/axioms)
Modern Greek: Harry Foundalis
(definitions, postulates, common notions/axioms)
|Bible: New Testament
(The 4 gospels,
Rom., 1 Cor., 2 Cor. )
|English: Young’s Literal
Spanish: Reina–Valera Antigua
Greek (katharevousa): Neophytos Vamvas
|Cavafy: Two Poems:
“Things Run Out”
|English: collective translation (various
German: Samuel B. Johnson
Modern Greek: monotonic system
Word: searching for a string in the original text, or in the
The “find word”
dialog is shown on the left. (This is only an image; to
experiment with the real dialog click on the Find button
the Classics Reader’s window.)
you see, keys for entering diacritics in ancient Greek are highlighted. All ancient Greek
diacritics are included:
- ΄ (keys / or ; ): the acute accent
- ` (keys \ or ` ): the grave accent
- ~ (keys =, ^, or ~): the circumflex
- ’ (key ] ): the smooth breathing
- ‘ (key [ ): the rough breathing
(key q): the iota underscript
- ¨ (key : ): the diaeresis
To place the above diacritics above or
below letters, click on the diacritic(s) before
the letter (depending on the [Type dacritics]
setting, shown just under the keyboard — see more
below) and then click on
Also, there is a separate group of
keys for stigma (Ϛ), qoppa (Ϟ), sampi (Ϡ), the numeric tick (΄),
and for conversions (see below).
|The options at the top of the dialog window determine
the parameters of the search, and are the following:
text (left)]: the keyboard changes its appearance
if this option is unchecked. In that case, the text on the right page
is to be searched, so the appearance of the keyboard
depends on the language of the translation. Also, the entire dialog
window is moved to the left or to the right, so that it doesn’t
occlude the text to be searched.
- [Search from start], for searching from the top of the currect text if checked,
or from the line shown at the top of the screen onward if unchecked.
- [Search the entire work], with which you can search not only in the chapter you are
looking at, but in the entire work (all chapters). For example, you
might be looking at Rhapsody 18 of the Odyssey, but want to search
the entire Odyssey without switching to another Rhapsody.
- [Search backwards], for a search that starts at the end of the “scope of search”
(whether this is the current chapter, or the entire work), and
- [Case sensitive search], for
case-sensitive or case-insensitive search.
- [Diacritic-sensitive search], which, when
checked, finds only those appearances of the search string that
match the diacritics that you entered, otherwise the diacritics are
starting like this] and [Word ending like this], which, when both checked, result in searching
for whole-word appearances of the entered text.
Also, there is a pair of
radio-button controls underneath the painted keyboard: [Type dacritics: o before letter o after letter].
In typing diacritics, some users are accustomed to typing
them before the letter that holds them, whereas others
prefer typing them after the letter. This option adjusts
the behavior of the keyboard to the user’s preference.
With the group of keys (“numeric keypad”) on the
right of the main keyboard, numbers can be entered, e.g., κϚ΄, and so by
locating that number you move to the corresponding section within the
text (e.g., to chapter κϚ΄ of Matthew’s gospel, or to paragraph κϚ΄ of
Herodotus’s current book, etc.). To make it even easier, you may move to
the desired section if you write the number normally in Arabic digits
(e.g., 26) and click on the conversion key
which converts automatically the number into Greek notation (e.g., κϚ΄).
The search starts after pressing
either the [Enter] key on the computer keyboard, or the button with the
at the bottom
row of buttons on the dialog box. In contrast, pressing the button with
the total number of occurrences only (within the given scope of search)
is found and reported.
An additional button in the Classics
Reader’s top-right corner looks like this:
(same as the find button, but blue and with a plus sign). It
allows the reader to find other appearances of the
searched string. This button becomes active once a search
You may also paste a text that you
have copied, either from the left page of the program (the one with the
classic text) or from another text outside of Classics Reader. In the
latter case the text must be encoded in Unicode. (Most Windows programs,
such as Word, Notepad, etc., encode texts in Unicode.) Pasting is done
by hitting Ctrl-V, or
Grammatical Information: What Word Is
When studying ancient texts, one often
wonders what form of a word one is seeing. In a language like ancient
Greek, which is very rich in morphology, finding the
root form of a word can be frustrating.
Classics Reader is equipped
with a vocabulary that comprises thousands of entries (7,500 up to
version 3.1). Entries are underlined with a light blue dashed line. When the cursor hovers over such
words, a cyan bubble with grammatical information about the word pops up.
In the example shown for the word “βάλον”,
the pop-up bubble gives the meaning of the word, and says that this is a
verb of the 3rd p. plural, indicative mood, of the 2nd aorist tense.
It also gives the 1st person of the same tense (ἔβαλον), and the
“dictionary entry” of the verb (present tense: βάλλω).
If the given form is, e.g., the 2nd p. plural optative aorist of the
middle voice, the bubble will “unroll” the form backwards and show the
1st p. sg. of the same optative, the 1st. p. sg. of the aorist
indicative, the 1st. p. sg. of the present indicative (still in middle
voice), and the 1st p. sg. present indicative of the active voice, if it
Make the cursor hover over icons
of the bubble and click to see the web pages that
open up (they will open in a separate
up a web page (if it exists) with the full conjugation/declension of the
verb, noun, adjective, pronoun, etc.
opens up a web page showing the entry of that word from the most
authoritative dictionary of the ancient Greek language: Liddell &
Scott’s Greek-English Lexicon.
shown) means that the grammatical characterization shown in the bubble
is the correct characterization for the form of this word as it appears
at that specific point in the text. This happens when words like
βάλον can have identical forms (i.e., still
βάλον) but different grammatical
characterizations. This bubble gives it as “3rd person plural” (and that
is the correct characterization, hence the
it can also be the “1st person singular”; and we move to a bubble
characterizing it as such by clicking on button
, at the
upper-left corner of the bubble. In the new bubble, the indicator will
appear like this:
meaning that the grammatical characterization given now in the bubble is
not the one corresponding to the word as it appears at
that point in the text.
The reader is in a position to control the following:
if the underlinings are to be hidden (some
readers might prefer to see a “clean” text), in which case a word
appears underlined only when the cursor hovers over that word;
which grammatical types of words are to
appear underlined (the reader might be interested only in, e.g.,
nouns, verbs, and adjectives, and not in conjunctions and particles,
such as “καί” and “γάρ”);
how to cause the information bubbles to pop
up (e.g., either by hovering the cursor over the word, or by
requiring a single or double click on it);
how to cause the information bubbles to
(e.g., as soon as the cursor leaves the word, or making them more
persistent, by requiring a click on the icon
the info bubble);
if the words are to be shown underlined (as in
the above image) and in which color, or painted against a colored background (as if emphasized by
a highlighter pen) and in which color.
All the above options are effected through the
settings icon ,
which appears at the upper-right corner of the Classic Reader’s
The vocabulary is enriched with many new words in
each new version of the Classics Reader.
The image on the left
shows a portion of the ancient text selected in Classics
Reader. This is achieved in the usual way: clicking at
the beginning of the text to be selected, and dragging
the cursor up to the end of the selection. After you select a portion of
text, you may:
Press Ctrl-C or Ctrl-Ins to copy
the selected text.
Right-click on the selection, in
which case a menu will pop up, prompting you to choose whether you
want to copy the selected text or to search for it in the rest of
the classic text.
Also note: a left-double-click on a
word selects that word.
Pasting is done with Ctrl-V or
Note: for reasons of avoiding
the reverse engineering of this software,
moving the cursor below the pages will not cause the selected text to
scroll down. You may do copy-paste only page-by-page.
Some of the underlined words are
followed by a red asterisk. When the cursor approaches the red asterisk
(as the one after “Ἡροδότου”) it takes the following form:
as shown in the figure, on the left.
Clicking on the asterisk while the cursor has that form the reader is
transferred to an encyclopedic web page (it is almost always a Wikipedia
page) that supplies information for that word, always a proper name
(person — historical or mythological — city,
land, people, river, mount, etc.)
Make the cursor hover over the red
asterisks (*) and click there to see the
corresponding encyclopedic page into which you will be transferred.
(They will open in a separate window.)
The red asterisks can be adjusted and
changed in form and/or color (or be eliminated entirely) through the
button of the program settings (
) according to the preferences of the reader.
Geographical Orientation: Which
place is this?
When the cursor approaches some of the
red asterisks that correspond to words of geographical landmarks (as is
the one after the word “Φοίνικας” – “Phoenicians”) it takes the
as shown in the image on the left. By
right clicking on the asterisk while the cursor has that
form the program opens up a new window with a map on which the landmark
is shown (land, people, city, mountain, lake, river, sea, etc.). A left
click on the same asterisk will open up the encyclopedic web page as
described above. What differs with the right click is that the map is
not loaded from the Internet but locally from the computer; therefore it
is always available even with a bad or nonexistent internet connection.
Make the cursor hover over the red
asterisks (*) of landmark names and click (a
left click here, since this is a web page, but a right click on the
program window). The map will be shown in a different window. A sample
map for the word “Φοίνικας” follows:
The map on the left shows the location
of Phoenicia, land of the ancient Phoenicians (“Φοίνικες” in ancient Greek).
It opens up in a separate window by right-clicking on the asterisk after
the word “Φοίνικας”.
In future versions there will be a
provision for the reader to move to related maps (e.g., by clicking on
the map shown), as well as to an index page of all available maps.
Explanatory Remarks Function
Sometimes something is said in the
ancient text that its mere translation cannot clarify. This happens when
the ancient author assumes on
the reader’s part knowledge of some custom or cultural information that
was common knowledge in antiquity, but was lost in later
times. Alternatively, either an encyclopedic web page does not exist on
that topic, or what must be referenced is not a single word but two, or
even a whole phrase. In this case the word or phrase is underlined in a
distinct way. Clicking on it no loading of a web page occurs but a
bubble pops up (of a color different from the grammatical bubbles) which
includes the relevant information. An example is shown below.
On the last line of the above figure a phrase has
been underlined with a pink line and marked with a
star at its end.
Clicking on that star results in a
bubble popping up, in which information regarding the phrase is
given. In the above example, Herodotus is saying that
Arion, a character in the story and a famous singer of
the time, performed the “Orthian Strain” with his
bubbles play the role of footnotes/endnotes of a text. The reader may
change the way they are marked (presence-or-not of an underlining, its
color, etc.) from the settings icon
of the program (see upper-right corner).
Our Policy of “If it ain’t broke, don’t fix it”
Do you sometimes wonder why well-known programs
that work fine appear in new versions in which things don’t work quite as
as before? We’ll tell you why, it’s simple: because software developers feel the need to
present something new all the time, even if the “new” is superficial bells and
whistles — such as new icons on buttons, rotating figurines, and “services” that
hardly anybody needs. Often they rewrite
their software from scratch, and in the process they introduce bugs, glitches, and snags.
We will never do that. We won’t rewrite our Classics Reader simply
for the sake of rewriting it and making it appear with a new façade. Anything
new that we add to this program
will be essential and concern either the features
described above or new classic texts.
Back to the Classical Texts of